Basic Brain Anatomy

Here’s some basic terminology so as we discuss the brain we can visualize and understand what portions of the brain are affected by diet, drugs, neurotoxins and trauma.

Our Brains have different anatomical regions as shown in this diagram.

Cerebrum-the largest section of the brain. It is responsible for voluntary movement, consciousness, perception, memory, interpretation and reasoning. The cerebrum is made up of the following specialized areas of the brain.

  • Frontal Lobe: Cognition, Inhibition, Motor Awareness, Motivation, Impulse Control
  • Temporal Lobe: Processes Auditory, Sensory and Pain Information
  • Partial Lobe: Language, Recognition, Movement Sensations, Left-Right Orientation
  • Occipital Lobe: Visual Cortex

Brain Stem-the brain stem is more concerned about the autonomic responses. It directly connects the brain and the rest of the body via the spinal nerves. The brain stem has often been referred to the primitive reptilian brain. Our survival fight/flight instincts reside here.

Neurons-the neuron consists of a cell body, axons and dendrites. Each neuron has one axon, which is the appendage that conducts electrical impulses from the cell body to muscles or other neurons. Each neuron has several dendrites which conduct impulses to the neuron. The neuron also consists of we have both sensory and motor neurons that make connections with the brain via the spinal cord. The two pictures below show the cell body, axons and dendrites. Fascinating!